Otis Elevator Company is the world's largest manufacturer of vertical transportation solutions, especially elevators (which Otis invented in most recently known form) and escalators. The company was founded in 1854 in Yonkers, New York, USA by Elisha Otis, who invented the safety mechanism of the elevator should the hoisting rope break. This was created due to an accident with a freight lift at a local factory that injured the people using it .
From 1976 to 2020, Otis was a subsidiary of United Technologies Corporation. It was spun off on April 3, 2020. They have an elevator test tower in Bristol, CT which is about 28 floors. They also do tours of the test tower. They primarily test free-falls on their new, and old elevators. They also have some European Otis Gen2s there.
- 1 History
- 2 Locations
- 3 Notable products
- 3.1 Elevators (current)
- 3.2 Elevators (discontinued)
- 3.3 Escalators
- 3.4 Moving walks
- 3.5 Others
- 4 Subsidiaries
- 5 Notable acquisitions
- 6 Distributors
- 7 Notable elevator installations
- 8 Elevator fixtures
- 9 Accidents and incident
- 10 Trivia
- 11 Gallery
- 12 Video
- 13 Notes and references
- 14 External links
Otis was founded by Elisha Otis in New York, NY, USA, after he demonstrated the special safety elevator mechanism in the Crystal Palace Exhibition in New York City in 1853.
By the end of 1856, Otis had sold more than 40 elevators, all freight models. In 1857, the world's first passenger elevator was installed at E. V. Haughwuot & Company in New York, NY.
In 1861, Otis' elevator safety brake was patented (US patent: 31128A).
After Elisha Otis died of diphtheria in 1861, the company was continued under his two sons Charles and Norton. Soon, the company was renamed to "Otis Brothers Co." with Charles as the company's president.
In 1868, Otis developed a steam-powered passenger elevator and in 1870, the company introduce a water-pressured hydraulic elevator.
In 1875, Otis invented the elevator governor.
In the 1880s, Otis has established branch offices in London and Paris, and had installed elevators in the Eiffel Tower, London Underground, Glasgow Harbour Tunnel, etc.
In 1889, Otis installed the first 2 elevators of the first sucessful electric elevator model at the Demarest Building in New York, NY.
In 1892, Otis installed the first elevators with the Unit Multi-Voltage (formerly called Ward Leonard) principal, for smoother ride quality.
Otis invented the automatic elevator in 1894 and was installed in the residence of Mrs. E. I. Shepard. It was the first recorded automatic (operatorless) elevator with push buttons.
Otis developed the escalator technology in 1895 and was introduced it in the Paris Exposition in 1900, a step type escalator. After that, the same escalator was installed in a department store in Pittsburgh, PA (Possibly Kaufmann's).
In 1898, Otis greatly contributed to the high speed water hydraulic elevator.
Otis also made another type of escalator, called the cleat type escalator. This type was probably not popular, and was made for only maybe 20 years.
Otis invented the gearless traction elevator in 1903. The first commercial installation was at the Beaver Building in New York City, NY.
Otis invented the geared traction elevator in 1908. The cable wrapped around the motor multiple times.
Otis invented the modern style geared traction elevator in 1911. Now, the cable only goes over the motor. This technology is still used today. Also in the same year, Otis installed their first elevator in Germany.
In 1915, Otis invented the self-leveling elevator, which they called the Micro-Drive. This elevator provides accurate stops at floor landings for the comfort of passengers. It was first used for the U.S. Army Bases during wartimes.
In 1921, Otis offered their first complete elevator maintenance service to Otis elevator owners in Springfield, IL.
In 1924, Otis introduced a high speed semi-automatic elevator, called SignalControl. This elevator could make accurate automatic stops from twice the speed possible with manual operation. It was first installed in the Standard Oil Building in New York City, NY. In the same year, Otis made their first modern style automatic door.
In 1925, Otis introduced Collective Control, the first ever selective-collective elevator system with a "memory", thus eliminating the need of elevator operators. This might have been the first Otis elevator model with fully automatic doors, but it is unconfirmed if this system always used automatic doors. Otis's Collective Control elevator was first installed in St. Luke's Hospital in Chicago, IL.
In 1931, a double-deck elevator was introduced by Otis. The first one was installed in the Empire State Building in New York, NY.
Possibly in the 1930s, Otis started using steel steps for escalators.
In 1948, Otis introduced a high speed fully automatic elevator, called AUTOTRONIC Elevatoring. Now, elevator operators on new/refurbished elevators were almost obsolete, and the elevator cars are operated automatically and electronically as a coordinated group. The first installation of this elevator was completed at the Atlantic Refining Company Building in Dallas, TX in 1950, which has since been demolished.
On July 7, 1976, after a hostile takeover, Otis became a wholly owned subsidiary of United Technologies Corp.
In 1979, Otis introduced the Otis Elevonic 101, a fully microprocessor based elevator system for high-rise buildings.
In 1981, Otis introduced the Otis Elevonic 401 elevator, which was equipped with synthesized automated speech, information display and security features.
In 1983, Otis introduced a computerized dispatching service called OTISLINE. This service runs 24 hours a day and designed for Otis elevator mechanics. Initially, the service was only available in North America but it was later introduced in France in 1984 and China in 2000.
In 1988, Otis introduced Remote Elevator Monitoring (REM), which is a diagnostic system for checking and monitoring elevator performance from distant locations. In 1995, the system was expanded to 8 of 18 countries by introducing REM III.
In 1982, Otis purchased Evans Lifts of Leicester, and in 1997, the UK's oldest elevator (lift) company Express Lift Co. Ltd. of Northampton. Shortly after the purchase of Express, both companies merged together to form "Express Evans", which was owned by Otis.
In 2000, Otis introduced its machine-roomless elevator product, Gen2, which replaces conventional steel cables with flat polyurethane coated steel belts. It also features a smaller, energy-efficient gearless machine. The Gen2 elevator was introduced to the North American and Japanese market in 2003.
Otis introduced its destination dispatch system called "Compass" in 2005, which is similar to Schindler Miconic 10 elevators. In 2013, Otis introduced its new generation "CompassPlus" destination dispatch, and in 2019, a newer version called Compass 360.
In 2013, Otis launched a new residential Gen2 Switch elevator that eliminates the need for three phase power, is solar-power capable, and uses battery technology to continue to run when the power goes out.
On November 26, 2018, United Technologies, the owner of Otis, announced the completion of the acquisition of Rockwell Collins. Additionally, they announced a split-off of its non-aerospace assets. One of these is Otis. In June 2019, United Technologies announced the intention to merge with defense contractor Raytheon to form Raytheon Technologies Corporation. Like it was announced after the merger with Rockwell Collins, this company will not include any non-aerospace-and-defense businesses as they would be split off from UTC earlier. Separation of these businesses was approved by United Technologies board of directors on March 11, 2020. Otis Elevator Company, along with Carrier, was successfully spun off on April 3, 2020. Quickly after, its former parent, United Technologies, completed its merger with Raytheon, becoming Raytheon Technologies Corporation.
Since Otis's spun-off from United Technologies, Otis Elevator Company is a trading company behind Otis, and publicly-traded owner is named Otis Worldwide Corporation. It is traded on the New York Stock Exchange with ticker OTIS.
Otis has its headquarters in Farmington, Connecticut, USA and has major manufacturing facilities in America, Europe, and Asia. They have ten research centers globally, and eight area headquarters located in:
- Farmington, Connecticut, USA
- Madrid, Spain
- Paris, France
- London, England
- São Bernardo do Campo, Brazil
- Shanghai, China
Otis also have two tall test towers. One is the Bristol Test Tower located in Connecticut, USA with a height of 384 ft (117 m), and another one is the Shibayama Test Tower located in Shibayama, Japan with a height of 505 ft (154 m). The Shibayama Test Tower is currently Otis's tallest test tower.
- Main article: Otis Gen2
Gen2 is Otis' current flagship machine roomless elevator model sold worldwide since 2000. In certain countries, it is also available as a regular elevator model with a machine room, as well as a modernization variant for old elevators called Gen2 Mod.
- Main article: Otis OH 5000
OH 5000 is Otis's current mid to high-rise elevator model primarily sold in Asia. It was originally a product a Xizi Otis.
Arise is a low to mid rise elevator model only sold in Asia. It is manufactured in China.
Genesis is a low-cost machine room less elevator model designed for low rise residential and commercial buildings in Europe. It is based on the Otis Gen2 platform.
- Main article: Otis SkyRise
SkyRise is Otis' current high speed gearless elevator for high-rise buildings.
SkyBuild is Otis's self-climbing elevator system used during construction where the elevator climbs one floor at a time as the building rises. Each jumps can be accomplished between shifts, thus reducing impact on other trades. Once the building is completed, the permanent elevator is put into service as Otis SkyRise. This system is very similar to Kone JumpLift.
FOVF is a freight elevator model only sold in Asia. Originally a product of Xizi Otis, the elevator is designed for industrial buildings, factories, warehouses and also shopping centers.
- Main article: Otis Compass
Compass was Otis' destination dispatch system, first launched in 2005. In 2013, CompassPlus, the second generation, came out, which later replaced Compass. In 2019, Compass 360, the third (and most current) generation, came out, and presumably replaced CompassPlus at the same time.
- Main article: Otis Signal Control
Signal Control was the world's first semi-automatic relay logic controlled elevator system from 1924.
Collective Control was the world's first automatic relay logic controlled elevator system from around 1924. This system had automatic doors, and most likely 5 speeds. This system did not support very high speed applications.
- Main article: Otis Autotronic
Otis Autotronic (automatic electronic) was an automatic programmed elevator system introduced in 1948. Unlike the earlier push-button models (Signal Control), these elevators were fast, and could change speeds and adjust their schedules to suit traffic demands, as well has having the ability to bypass hall calls when the car is fully loaded.
Elevonic was a series of traction and hydraulic elevator models with microprocessor controls. The name "Elevonic" is a portmanteau between the words "Elevator Control" and Computer Electronic".
- Elevonic 101: The first completely microprocessor-based elevator model. It was introduced in 1979.
- Elevonic 120: Micro-processor-based hydraulic elevator which was launched in 1994.
- Elevonic 220: Low-rise micro-processor-based traction elevator which was launched in 1996.
- Elevonic 201: Traction elevator model produced in the 1980s.
- Elevonic 301: Hydraulic elevator model produced from 1985 until 2005.
- Elevonic 311: Low to mid rise elevator model produced from 1994 until 2003.
- Elevonic 401: The first "human-engineered" elevator with synthesized speech, information display and security system. It was introduced in 1981 as the second product of the Elevonic class for high-rise applications, as well as the successor of Elevonic 101.
- Elevonic 411: Launched in 1989 as the successor of Elevonic 401. A variant for modernization of older elevators called Elevonic 411M was launched in 1990.
- Geared Elevonic Model: Microprocessor-based traction elevator for mid-rise buildings.
Otis Europa 2000 and 2001
Otis Europa 2000 and Europa 2001 were a traction elevator model designed for low rise residential and commercial buildings in Europe. They were mainly sold in Europe, although very few Europa 2000 elevators were also installed in Asia. These models are believed to have been succeeded by the Otis 2000 (see below).
- Main article: Otis 2000
Otis 2000 was a series of standardized elevator models primarily designed for the European markets, although it was also available in the Asia Pacific region. It was launched in 1993.
- Otis 2000 E: Standard electric traction model for low to mid rise buildings.
- Otis 2000 H: Hydraulic model.
- Otis 2000 VF: Traction model with variable frequency.
- Otis 2000 R: The Russian variant of Otis 2000, only sold in Russia and CIS countries.
- Otis Cargo 2000: Freight elevator variant of Otis 2000.
- Main article: Otis SKYWAY
SKYWAY was Otis's high speed gearless elevator model for high rise buildings with large load capacity and Double Deck elevator (1998). It was the first and fastest AC gearless elevator in the world. The version that comes with Double Deck elevator is called "Super Double Deck Elevator System", or called "Super DD".
- N6C: A relay controlled elevator model made with AC/2 motor from the 1980s.
- Servo: A relay controlled elevator model made with VAC motor from the 1980s.
- UCL: A relay controlled elevator model made with DC motor from the 1980s.
- TOEC40: Freight elevator model.
- VIP 260: Mid to high rise elevator model made from 1940 until 2006.
- System 260: Traction elevator model made by Flohr-Otis of Germany, and only sold there.
- Spec 50: Traction elevator model made by Nippon Otis of Japan in the 1980s. It was also known as Serie PM-2.
- Spec 60: Traction elevator model made by Nippon Otis of Japan in the 1990s. It is a successor of Spec 50.
- Spec 90: Traction elevator model made by Nippon Otis of Japan in the 1990s. In its native country Japan, the model is believed to be known as Spec Alsa or Spec Creses.
- Otis 3200: A model of traction elevator for low to mid rise buildings for the Asian markets. Manufactured in China, it is somewhat based of the Otis Spec 90 which was made by Nippon Otis of Japan. Also known as 300VF.
- 200VF: Low-cost low rise traction elevator model sold in India. It should not be confused with Otis 2000 VF.
- OmniHome: Machine room less home elevator marketed by Otis Taiwan. The model was made using OEM parts from E-Feng Machinery Co., Ltd. of Taiwan.
- HP 1500 [Plunger Electric Elevator]: Economy hydraulic elevator model for up to 3 floors, made in 1960s-early 1970s.
- HP 2000 Plunger Electric Elevator: Hydraulic elevator model for up to 5 floors, made in 1960s-early 1970s.
- HPA-1500 [Plunger Electric Elevator]: Economy hydraulic elevator model for up to 3 floors, newer version of the HP 1500 made in early-mid 1970s.
- HPA 2000 [Plunger Electric Elevator]: Economy hydraulic elevator model for up to 5 floors, made in early-mid 1970s.
- Escal-Aire (discontinued)
- 506 NCE
- 508 NCE
- 510 PSE (only sold in Hong Kong)
- 512 NCE
- 513 NPE
- 520 NPE
- XO21NP (for public transport facilities)
- XO-PE (for public transport facilities)
Note: Some of Otis's moving walk models are known as Trav-O-Lator.
Remote Elevator Monitoring
Remote Elevator Monitoring (REM) is a diagnostic system for checking elevator performance from a distant location. It was introduced in 1986 for North America, expanded to France in the late 1980s and subsequently to other countries.
- Otis Electric Elevator Co. Ltd. (Hangzhou, China. formerly Xizi Otis Elevator Co. Ltd.)
- Sigma Elevator Company (South Korea)
- EXPRESS Elevator (Suzhou, China)
- Otis Elevator Co. (HK) Ltd. (Hong Kong, China)
- Eastern Elevators (Australia)
- CFA (France)
- Eguren Kone (Spain)
|1905||Fensom Elevator Works||Canada||Became Otis Fensom until 1949.|
|1914||R. Waygood & Co.||United Kingdom||Became Waygood Otis until the 1950s.|
|1947||Officine Meccaniche STIGLER||Italy||Became Stigler-OTIS until 1987, but not all elevators had this brand.|
|1951||Flohr Aufzüge||Germany||Became Flohr-Otis in countries Flohr previously were operated in.|
|1982||Evans Lifts Limited||United Kingdom|
|1988||Wadsworth Becker Lifts Limited||United Kingdom||Wadsworth Lifts Limited merged with Becker Equipment & Lifts Limited in 1986 and became Wadsworth Becker. It was sold to Otis Elevator Company in 1988 following a loss of trading results.|
|1997||Express Lift Co. Ltd.||United Kingdom|
|1999||LG Elevator||South Korea||Became LG-OTIS until 2005. In addition, Sigma Elevator Company was established in 2000.|
|2002||Cavinder Elevators, Inc.||United States|
|2003||Amtech Elevator Services||United States|
|2011||Marshall Elevators||United States|
|2016||Schindler Elevator KK||Japan|
|2017||Melco Brazil S.A Lifts||Brazil||Brazilian subsidiary of Mitsubishi.|
|Unknown year||Bruno Haack Aufzüge||Germany|
Other affiliated companies
|1995||PT Citas Engineering||Indonesia|||
|Aitken Spence Elevators||Sri Lanka|
|Caribbean Elevators N.V.||Curacao
|Darwish Elevators Co.||Qatar|
|Electra Elevators Ltd.||Israel|
|Titan International Ltd.||Malta|
|Fred Stieltjes & Co.||Netherlands
Dutch Indies (now Indonesia)
|PT. Citas Engineering||Indonesia||1965-1992|
|PT. Pembangunan Perumahan||Indonesia||1960-1964|
Notable elevator installations
- Main article: List of notable Otis elevator installations
- List of Otis elevator fixtures - for elevator fixtures found in all regions except the United States and Canada.
- List of Otis elevator fixtures (North America) - for elevator fixtures found in the United States and Canada.
- List of Sigma elevator fixtures - for elevator fixtures found in South Korea, as well as those made by Otis Korea's subsidiary Sigma in Asia, United States and certain Latin American countries.
Accidents and incident
- On 13 May 2003, an upward escalator at City Hall MRT station, Singapore suddenly reversed, flinging some 20 people on it backwards, including a woman who was pregnant.
- On July 24, 2009, a group of 8 people were trapped for 8 hours in an Otis elevator in Toronto. A repair man who tried to fix the elevator fell more then 20 floors to his death.
- On December 14, 2010, an Otis escalator installed in the International Trade station of Shenzhen Metro Line 1 retrograded without notice, causing 25 passenger injures.
- On July 5, 2011, an Otis 513MPE escalator installed at Beijing Subway Line 4 Zoo Station escalator changed direction without notice, causing 30 people to fall. One boy was killed and 27 people injured, prompting China to halt the use of the escalator model.
- On March 25, 2017, a long Otis escalator which ran from the 4th to 8th floor of Langham Place in Hong Kong, China, malfunctioned which caused 18 people injured. The escalator suddenly stopped, reversed and then sped up. The cause of the accident was suspected to have been caused by a faulty drive chain and the emergency brake system failed to work.
- In February 2007, the European Union regulators fined Otis Elevator 225 million Euros for being part of a price-fixing cartel. Other manufacturers such as ThyssenKrupp, Schindler, Kone and Mitsubishi Elevator Europe were also fined similar amounts in the same cartel.
- On December 10, 2015, an Otis 3200 elevators at Nestle Building, Building B of Perkantoran Hijau Arkadia, South Jakarta, Indonesia, designed for PT. Nestle Indonesia employees fell from the 7th floor to the 3rd floor, Killing two Nestle employees and injuring one ISS employee. The incident also forced people to evacuate from the building because of the loud bang and vibration caused by the freefalling elevator.
- On December 19, 2015, an older Sovietic elevator modernized in 2001 by Otis MCS-300 at Ostrovityanova 49 in Moscow, Russia, young mother rolled her stroller into the elevator and the elevator suddenly broke the rope and as a result of the arrival of one floor stroller ripped and 10 month old girl died.
- Otis elevators in Japan which were installed prior to 2005 are branded as National OTIS. This is because Otis products in Japan had routes directly sold by the company and routes to sell via Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. (now Panasonic). The "National OTIS" brand was abolished as a new cooperation system was established between Matsushita Electric and Otis in July 2005.
- Otis has also dabbled in horizontal automated people-mover "shuttle" systems, such as the Otis Hovair.
- In some parts of the Canary Islands in Spain, Otis is known as "Zardoya OTIS" (Gran Canaria, Lanzarote, and La Gomera) and "Schneider OTIS" (Tenerife).
- Some Otis elevators in the United Kingdom has the Drucegrove Digitalker voice announcer.
Landing sills nameplates
Notes and references
- The Secret Life of the Lift (Secret Life Of Machines Series 3 (1993) by Tim Hunkin) - YouTube
- US 31128A: Improvement in hoisting apparatus
- Otis launched new residential solar-powered Gen2 elevator
- UTC completes $30B deal for Rockwell Collins, announces three-way split of company
- News | United Technologies Board Of Directors Approves Separation Of Carrier And Otis And Declares Spin Off Distribution Of Carrier And Otis Shares | United Technologies Dead link
- Otis Investor Presentation, March 18, 2020
- Otis SkyBuild brochure
- Merged with Xizi Elevator Group in 1997. It is one of Otis's largest subsidiary companies. Name changed from "Xizi Otis Elevator Co. Ltd." in 2017.
- Established in 2001 as a result of merger between Otis and LG Elevator in 1999. Sigma is a subsidiary of Otis Elevator Korea and a brand of South Korea manufactured-Otis elevators for overseas market.
- Express Introduction - EXPRESS
- Otis Fensom Elevator Co. Building the North American Elevator Company - Elevator Scene
- Wadsworth Lifts Limited - 30 November 1988 (PDF) Dead Link
- Otis Brazil Completes Acquisition of Mitsubishi Electric’s elevators and escalators Business in Brazil
- Originally a distributor of Otis elevators and escalators in Indonesia from 1964 until 1992. Otis had a joint venture with the company in 1992 and took over it in 1995, becoming PT. Citas Otis Elevator.
- Rangkuman Tentang Citas Otis - PT. Citas Otis Elevator (Indonesian) (archived)
- "Sistem "Sky Lobby" mengoptimalkan pemakaian lift" - KONSTRUKSI Magazine, October 1989
- VIDEOS: 18 injured after 45-metre-long escalator reverses and speeds up in Mong Kok - Coconuts Hong Kong
- Maintenance hotline plate galleries (C) (hkelev.com)
- Official website
- Sigma Elevator Company
- Hangzhou Xizi Otis (archived)
- List of patents Dead link
- Complete history of Otis Elevator Company
- Otis history - The Elevator Museum site (archived)
- Apple Daily (Hong Kong): Elevator mechanics, to make sure the lift is running well, Septmber 26, 2016 (Chinese only).
|Major elevator and escalator companies|
|Full list of companies||List of elevator and escalator companies|
|Operating||Fujitec • Hitachi • Hyundai • Kone • Mitsubishi Electric (Shanghai Mitsubishi) • Otis (Otis Electric • Sigma) • Schindler • thyssenkrupp • Toshiba|
|Defunct||Dover Elevators • Express Lift • Orenstein & Koppel • Thyssen • Westinghouse|
|Other companies||Third-party elevator maintenance companies|